Timelines (1820-1930)

Timeline Index

SDA History (1830-1930)

Black SDA History (1830-1930)

Ellen White Life (1827-1915)

Ellen White and Blacks (1827-1915)

Christian History (1830-1920)

United States History (1820-1920)

International History (1820-1920)


Seventh-day Adventist History (1830-1920)

1831    William Miller preaches first sermon on second coming of Christ.

1843    James White is ordained by ministers of the Christian denomination, of which he was a member.

1844    The Great Disappointment (October 22).

Before the close of the year forty persons were keeping the Sabbath in Washington, New Hampshire.

1845    First vision of E.G. White.

Joseph Bates begins keeping the Sabbath.

1846    James and Ellen Gould Harmon are married (August 30).

E.G. White’s first publication, a two-page leaflet called “To the Remnant Scattered Abroad.”

1848    First general meeting of Sabbathkeepers held at Rocky Hill, Connecticut (April 20, 21).

Ellen White has vision concerning beginning of the publishing work.

1849    William Miller dies (December 20).

James White publishes first hymn book used by the denomination.

1851    First issue of Advent Review and Sabbath Herald printed at Saratoga Springs.

1852    James White opened a printing office.

Uriah Smith observes his first Sabbath.

J.H. Waggoner accepts the message.

1853    First regular Sabbath schools organized in Rochester and Bucksbridge, New York.

1854    First tent-meeting held; conducted by J.N. Loughborough and M.E. Cornell.

1855    Review office moved to Battle Creek, Michigan.

1860    Name Seventh-day Adventist adopted.

A temporary organization known as the Advent Review Publishing Association organized in Battle Creek.

1861    Publishing Association made permanent; known as the Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association.

Churches first formally organized.

First conference organized in Michigan.

1862    Six more conferences organized.

1863    General Conference organized (May 20).

John Byington is first president.

1865    James White becomes president of General Conference.

1866    Health Reform Institute (Battle Creek Sanitarium) opened.

1867    J.N. Andrews becomes General Conference president.

1868    First general camp-meeting held at Wright, MI.

James White again becomes president of General Conference.

1871    G.I. Butler becomes president of General Conference.

1872    First denominational school opened at Battle Creek, with G.H. Bell in charge.

Joseph Bates dies at 80.

1874    Battle Creek College building erected.

First Signs of the Times issued.

J.N. Andrews, first SDA missionary, sets sail for Europe.

James White again becomes president of General Conference.

1875    SDA publishing Association incorporated at Oakland, California; now the Pacific Press Publishing Association.

1878    Battle Creek Tabernacle built.

St. Helena Sanitarium established.

1880    G.I. Butler again becomes president of General Conference.

1881    James White dies (August 6).

1882    Healdsburg College opened.

1883    J.N. Andrews dies (October 21).

First denominational Yearbook for sale.

1887    First missionaries sent to South Africa.

1888    O.A. Olsen becomes president of General Conference.

Historic General Conference held in Minneapolis.

1889    Message first reaches South America.

J.H. Waggoner dies (April 17).

1890    Ship Pitcairn launched in San Francisco.

1891    Union College established.

1892    Walla Walla College established.

1894    First Adventist missionary arrives in India.

1895    Southern Missionary Society is established; Edson White begins evangelism in the South.

1896    Oakwood Manual Training School established.

1897    G.A. Irwin becomes president of General Conference.

1901    A.G. Daniells becomes president of General Conference.

Southern Publishing Association established at Nashville, Tennessee.

1902    Battle Creek Sanitarium destroyed by fire.

Review and Herald in Battle Creek destroyed by fire.

Battle Creek College moved to Berrien Springs, Michigan.

1903    Uriah Smith dies (March 6).

General Conference headquarters transferred to Washington, D.C.

1904    Hinsdale Sanitarium established.

Loma Linda Sanitarium established.

1905    Brazil Publishing House established.

1906    Pacific Press Publishing Company destroyed by fire.

1908    Florida Sanitarium established at Orlando, Florida.

Japan Publishing House established in Tokyo.

1909    Negro Department established at the General Conference.

1912    Stanborough Park Sanitarium established at Stanborough Park, England.

1913    Far Eastern Division of General Conference organized.

1915    Ellen G. White dies (July 16).

1916    South American Division of General Conference organized.

1918    G.I. Butler dies.

1919    Southern Asia Division of General Conference organized.

O.A. Olsen dies (January 22).

African Division of General Conference organized.

Black Seventh-day Adventist History (1830-1930)

1830s   Joseph Bates participates in the antislavery society.

John Byington, the first General Conference president, and John P. Kellogg, the father of John Harvey, offer their homes as stations on the Underground Railroad, which was set up to help fleeing slaves.

Millerite movement begins; blacks exposed to Advent message.

1833    Frederick Douglass and other blacks witness the falling of the stars. Douglass writes his account in his book My Bondage and My Freedom; his daughter, Rosetta Douglass Sprague, later becomes a Seventh-day Adventist.

1841    William Still, a black preacher who spent his life working with the Anti-Slavery Society and the Underground Railroad, accepts the Millerite teachings; later experiences the  Great Disappointment.

1842    William Ellis Foy, a black  Millerite minister, receives the first of four visions relating to the early Advent movement. Foy faithfully carries out his commission. In 1844 he meets with Ellen White and recognizes her prophetic gift and ministry. Though he receives no more visions after 1844, he continues to pastor until his death in 1893. His grave is in   the Birch Tree Cemetery in Ellsworth, Maine.

1843    Charles Bowles, another well-known black Millerite minister, becomes instrumental in setting up quarterly Millerite meetings.

Sojoumer Truth (formerly Isabella Van Wagener) visits at least two Millerite camp meetings. She accepts the Advent teachings. It is believed she was baptized by Uriah Smith in Battle Creek. She dies around 100 years of age and is buried in the Oak Hill Cemetery, close to the grave of Ellen G. White and other pioneers.

1844    Black Advent believers affected by the Great Disappointment, which effectively ends Millerite movement.

John Lewis, a black Millerite minister, writes biography of Charles Bowles entitled The Life, Labor, and Trials of Charles Bowles.

1859    Ellen G. White instructs church members to disobey the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act that requires American citizens to deliver fleeing slaves to their masters.

1861    Ellen White receives the historic vision at Roosevelt, New York, revealing the horrible curse and degradation of slavery. She declares God is bringing judgment against America for "the high crime of slavery," and that God will punish the South for the sin of slavery and the North for so long suffering its overreaching and overbearing influence.

1862    Abraham Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, effective January 1, 1863. The move opens the door for the Adventist message to move into the South.

1863    The Seventh-day Adventist Church is officially organized in Battle Creek.

1871    Elbert B. Lane, the first Adventist minister in the South, reports holding meetings in a Tennessee depot building with "white people occupying one room, and the Colored the other."

1877    First black SDA school begins in Missouri.

1886    The first black congregation is formed in Edgefield Junction (Madison), Tennessee.

1889    Charles Kinney becomes first black, ordained SDA minister; was won to the Adventist faith through the preaching of J. N. Loughborough and E. G. White. He goes on to become one of the major pioneers in the black work.

1889    The concept of black conferences is first suggested by Charles Kinney when confronted by efforts to segregate him and his members at camp meeting on the day of his ordination. He suggests this as a way to work more effectively among blacks and to help deal with racial tensions and problems in the church.

1890    Marshall Enoch begins SDA work in Bermuda. (Bermuda Mission is organized by J. A. Morrow in 1959 with 35 members.)

1891    Ellen White delivers "Our Duty to the Colored People" address to the General Conference constituency on March 21.

1892    James Patterson leaves for Jamaica; becomes first black SDA missionary.

Harry S. Shaw is appointed as a special agent by the General Conference to evangelize blacks in the South.

1894    Edson White and Will Palmer begin to evangelize Southern blacks via the steamship Morning Star; they land in Vicksburg, Mississippi, in 1895.

1895    Southern Missionary Society, devoted to working for blacks in the South, is begun, headed by Edson White. It is incorporated in 1898 and becomes part of the Southern Union Conference in 1909.

1896    Oakwood Industrial School begins operation; becomes junior college in 1927. J. L. Moran becomes first black president in 1932; school becomes senior college in 1943; receives accreditation in 1958 (Presidents: J.L. Beardsley, 1917-1923; J.A. Tucker, 1923-  1932; J.L. Moran,1932-1945; F.L. Peterson, 1945-1954; G.J. Millet, 1954-1963; A.V. Pinkney, 1963-1966; F.W. Hale, 1966-1971; C.B. Rock, 1971-1985; B.F. Reaves, 1985-   1996; D.W. Baker, 1996-present).

1898    The Gospel Herald is published by Edson White at Yazoo City, Mississippi. Designed to be an evangelistic journal for black people; Message Magazine, its successor, begins in 1934.

1900s   Booker T. Washington is among notable persons to visit Battle Creek Sanitarium; becomes acquainted with Adventist health message.

1901    First black SDA camp meeting, Edgefield Junction, Tennessee.

Anna Knight arrives in India; becomes first black woman of any denomination to serve as a missionary there.

First black SDA medical facility is founded in Nashville, Tennessee; it is later expanded to Riverside Hospital in 1927 under the direction of Mrs. Nellie Druillard. Turned over to the General Conference in 1935; further expanded with the purchase of 46 acres adjacent to property. Modern hospital building constructed in 1947; sold in 1983.

1906    In Los Angeles, Furlong Track church, the first black SDA congregation on the West Coast still in existence, is organized. (Later becomes Wadsworth church and then University church.)

1907    John Ragland, a product of Adventist education and church worker, leaves the Adventist Church  because of discrimination and segregation. He later rejoins in the 1960s.

1909    Testimonies, vol. 9, is published; section entitled "Among the Colored People," dealing with work among blacks, is included.

Negro Department of the General Conference is formed (name changed to North American Colored Department in 1941; changed to North American Regional Department in 1954; discontinued in 1978). The department is created in the General Conference to deal with the growing issues of the black work. W.H. Green becomes first black head of the department. His successors are G. E. Peters, F. L. Peterson, C. E. Moseley, H. D. Singleton, and W. W. Fordham.

1910    Black membership in the Seventh-day Adventist Church is 1,000.

1912    Lottie Blake becomes first black physician in the Adventist Church.

1914    Hadley Memorial Hospital opens.

1920    Black membership in the Seventh-day Adventist Church is 4,000.

Harlem (later Northeastern) Academy opens.

1921    Eva B. Dykes becomes first black woman in the United States to complete requirements for the Ph.D. degree.

1929    James K. Humphrey, a black Baptist minister who became an Adventist in 1902, a gifted leader, founds the First Harlem Seventh-day Adventist Church. Plans to create Utopia Park, consisting of an orphanage, a nursing home, a training school, an industrial area, and health-care facilities. Conference administration feels that Humphrey is not cooperating and moves to defrock him. Harlem congregation stands with Humphrey, and the Greater New York Conference votes to defrock him and disfellowship the entire congregation. It adopts the name United Sabbath-day Adventist Church.

1930    Black membership in the Seventh-day Adventist Church is 8,000.


Ellen G. White Life (1827-1915)

1827    Ellen Gould Harmon is born on November 26 in Gorham, Maine.

1836    Ellen is struck by a rock; formal schooling ends.

1840    First hears preaching of William Miller and becomes a Millerite.

1842    Baptized into Methodism.

1843    Harmon family disfellowshipped from Pine Street Methodist Church because of Millerite beliefs.

1844    Disappointed, along with other Millerites, when Jesus does not return on October 22.

Receives first vision in December.

1846    Marries James Springer White.

Begins observing the seventh-day Sabbath.

1847    Has second vision on April 3.

First child, Henry Nichols, is born on August 26.

1849    James Edson is born on July 28.

Whites begin publishing operation.

1851    A Sketch of the Christian Experience of Ellen G. White is published by James White’s small press.

1854    William Clarence is born on August 29.

1855    First testimony is published.

Whites settle in Battle Creek, Michigan.

1858    Ellen White receives the Great Controversy Vision.

Spiritual Gifts, Vol. 1.

1860    The White’s fourth son, John Herbert, is born on September 20; dies several months later.

Spiritual Gifts, Vol. 2.

1863    Whites focus on organizing the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

Ellen White receives Health Reform vision.

Henry White dies of pneumonia.

1864    Spiritual Gifts, Vol. 3.

Spiritual Gifts, Vol. 4.

1865    Health, or How to Live.

1868    Cares for James in Greenville, Michigan.

1870    Spirit of Prophecy, Vol. 1.

1874    Ellen White has SDA Development vision.

1877    Spirit of Prophecy, Vol. 2.

1878    The Story of Redemption.*

Spirit of Prophecy, Vol. 3.

1880    Life Sketches.

1881    James White dies of malarial fever on August 6.

1882    Early Writings.

1883    Sketches from the Life of Paul.

1884    Spirit of Prophecy, Vol. 4.

1885    Testimonies for the Church, Vols. 1-4.

1887    European tour.

1888    Delivers nine addresses at the General Conference session at Minneapolis.

The Great Controversy.

1889    Testimonies for the Church, Vol. 5.

1890    Christian Temperance.

Patriarchs and Prophets.

1891    Delivers “Our Duty to the Colored People” address on March 21 at the General Conference session in Battle Creek.

1891-1900    Ellen White pioneers the Adventist work in Australia.

1892    Steps to Christ.

Gospel Workers.

1893    Christian Education.

1896    Thoughts From the Mount of Blessings.

1898    The Desire of Ages.

The Southern Work.

1900    Christ’s Object Lessons.

Testimonies for the Church, Vol. 6

1901    Delivers reorganization address at Battle Creek General Conference session.

1902    Colporteur Ministry.

Testimonies for the Church, Vol. 7.

1903    Education

1904    Testimonies for the Church, Vol. 8.

1905    The Ministry of Healing.

1909    Eastern tour.

Testimonies for the Church, Vol. 9.

1911    The Acts of the Apostles.

1912    Draws up will.

1913    Counsels to Teachers, Parents, and Students.

1915    Gospel Workers.

Dies on July 16.

Ellen White and Blacks (1827-1915)

1827    Ellen Gould Harmon is born on November 26 in Gorham, Maine.

1842    Ellen White hears William Foy relate his visions.

1844    Foy confirms Ellen White’s gift.

1849    James Edson is born on July 28.

1859    James and Ellen White eat a meal in a Black family’s home on January 25.

Ellen G. White instructs church members to disobey the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act that requires American citizens to deliver fleeing slaves to their masters.

1861    Ellen White receives the historic vision at Roosevelt, New York, revealing the horrible curse and degradation of slavery. She declares God is bringing judgment against America for "the high crime of slavery," and that God will punish the South for the sin of slavery and the North for so long suffering its overreaching and overbearing influence.

1878    Ellen White preaches in an evangelistic effort in which Charles M. Kinny is baptized.

1885    Testimonies, Vol. 1, is published.

1888    Ellen White appeals for aid and financially helps J.R. Ruster.

1890    Ellen White visits St. Louis and is troubled by racial tensions she witnesses there among Adventists. She receives "All Ye Are Brethren" vision.

1891    Ellen White delivers the Our Duty to the Colored People address to the General Conference constituency on March 21.

1891-1900    Ellen White pioneers Adventist work in Australia.

1894    Edson White and Will Palmer begin to evangelize Southern Blacks via the steamship Morning Star; they land in Vicksburg, Mississippi, in 1895.

1896    Oakwood Industrial School begins operation.

1898    The Southern Work is published.

The Gospel Herald is begun by Edson White at Yazoo City, Mississippi. It is designed to be an evangelistic journal for Black people.

1901    Ellen White speaks to a Black congregation on April 5.

1902    Testimonies, Vol. 7, is published.

1904    Ellen White speaks at Lewis C. Sheafe’s church in Washington, D.C.

            On June 21, 1904, Ellen White addresses the students at Oakwood.

1906    On August 13 Ellen White’s assistant, Dores E. Robinson, interviews her about William Foy.

1909   Testimonies, Vol. 9, is published.

            Ellen White speaks at Oakwood on April 19.

1912    Draws up will, which includes Black people in provision number 5.

1915    Ellen White dies on July 16.


Christian History (1830-1920)

1830    John Nelson Darby helps start Plymouth Brethren.

Charles Finney’s revivals lead to Second Great Awakening.

Richard Allen presides at the first National Negro Convention, which convenes in Philadelphia.

Joseph Smith produces Book of Mormon.

1833    John Keble’s Sermon “National Apostasy” initiates the Oxford movement.

Oberlin College is founded.

1834    Charles Spurgeon is born.

1837    D.L. Moody is born.

American Presbyterianism splits.

1844    Millerites experience the Great Disappointment.

1845    Methodist and Baptists split over the issue of slavery.

Southern Baptist Convention formed.

1847    Mormon migration to Utah.

1856    David Livingstone crosses Africa.

1854    Hudson Tyler arrives in China.

Soren Kierkegaard publishes attacks on Christendom.

Charles Spurgeon becomes a pastor in London.

Doctrine of Immaculate Conception adopted by Catholic Church.

1855    D.L. Moody is converted.

1857    David Livingstone publishes Missionary Travels.

1859    Charles Darwin publishes On The Origin of Species.

1861    Presbyterians divide over the issue of slavery.

1865    William Booth founds the Salvation Army.

1870    First Vatican Council is held.

1870    Pope Pius IX proclaims the doctrine of papal infallibility.

1875    Mary Baker Eddy publishes Science and Health.

1882    Frederic Nietzsche declares “God is dead.”

1884    Charles Taze Russell founds Jehovah’s Witnesses.

1886    Student volunteer movement begins.

Moody Bible Institute established.

The National Baptist Convention is founded.

1892    Charles Spurgeon dies.

1896    Billy Sunday begins preaching.

1899    D.L. Moody dies.

Gideons International founded.

1900    What is Christianity? by Adolf Harnack is published.

1906    Azusa Street Revival launches Pentecostalism.

Albert Schweitzer publishes The Quest of the Historical Jesus.

1907    C.O.G.I.C. organized.

1914    Assemblies of God founded.

1915    Publication of The Fundamentals launches Fundamentalist movement.

1916    Father Divine founds International Peace Mission movement.

1919    Karl Barth’s Commentary on Romans is published.

United States History (1820-1920)

1820    Missouri Compromise.

James Monroe reelected.

1850    Underground Railroad at its peak.

1822    Vesey slave rebellion in Charleston, South Carolina.

1823    Secretary of State Adams proposes Monroe Doctrine.

1825    Eerie Canal completed.

House elects John Quincy Adams as president.

1826    American Temperance Society founded.

1828    Andrew Jackson elected president.

Railroad age begins.

1829    Indian Removal Act.

1830    Joseph Smith founds Mormon Church.

1831    Garrison begins publishing the Liberator.

Nat Turner slave rebellion in Virginia.

1832    Black Hawk War

1833    American Anti-Slavery Society founded.

1836    Bank of the United States expires.

Battle of the Alamo.

Texas wins independence from Mexico.

1837    Seminole Indians defeated and most eventually removed from Mexico.

Panic of 1837.

1839    Cherokee Indians removed on “Trail of Tears.”

1844    Samuel Morse invents telegraph.

1845    Douglass publishes Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass.

United States annexes Texas.

1847    Mormon migration to Utah.

Dred Scott case begins.

1849    California Gold Rush.

Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery.

1849    Compromise of 1850, including Fugitive Slave Law.

1851    Sojourner Truth delivers her famous speech “Ain’t I a Woman.”

First edition of the New York Times published.

1852    Harriet Beacher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom’s Cabin.

1854    Republican party organized.

Ashmun Institute (later Lincoln University), first institution of higher learning for black people, founded.

1856    John Brown’s Pottawatomie massacre.

Wilberforce University founded.

1860    Civil War in “bleeding Kansas.”

1857    Dred Scott decision.

1858    Lincoln-Douglas debates.

1859    Brown raids Harpers Ferry.

1860    Lincoln wins four-way race for presidency.

South Carolina secedes from the Union.

1861    Seven seceding states form Confederate States of America.

Lincoln takes office.

Fort Sumter fired upon.

Four upper Southern states secede.

First Battle of Bull Run.

1862    Confederacy enacts conscription.

Homestead Act.

Battle of Shiloh.

Battle of Antietam.

Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Battle of Fredericksburg.

1863    Final Emancipation Proclamation.

Union enacts conscription.

National Banking System established.

Battle of Gettysburg.

Lincoln announces “10 percent” Reconstruction plan.

1864    Sherman’s march through Georgia.

Grant’s Wilderness Campaign.

Lincoln defeats McClellan for presidency.

1865    Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox.

Lincoln assassinated.

Thirteenth Amendment ratified.

Congress refuses to seat Southern congressmen.

Freedman’s Bureau established.

Southern states pass black Codes.

1866    Congress passes Civil Rights Bill.

Congress passes Fourteenth Amendment.

Ku Klux Klan founded.

National Labor Union organized.

1867    Reconstruction Act.

Howard University is chartered by Congress.

1868    Johnson impeached and acquitted.

Johnson pardons Confederate leaders.

Ulysses Grant becomes president.

1870    Standard Oil Company organized.

1872    Freedmen’s Bureau ended.

1873    Panic of 1873.

1875    Jim Crow laws are enacted in Tennessee.

1876    Bell invents telephone.

Battle of the Little Bighorn.

1877    Reconstruction ends.

Nez Perce Indian War.

1879    Edison invents electric light.

1881    Garfield assassinated; Arthur assumes presidency.

Tuskegee Institute opened.

1882    Chinese Exclusion Act.

1883    Civil Rights Cases.

1885    Louis Sullivan builds the first skyscraper, in Chicago.

1886    Statue of Liberty erected in New York harbor.

1890    National American Woman Suffrage Association formed.

Battle of Wounded Knee.

1892    A record 230 people lynched.

Ida B. Wells begins her anti-lynching campaign.

1893    Depression of 1893 begins.

1895    J.P. Morgan’s banking syndicate loans $65 million in gold to federal government.

Booker T. Washington delivers his famous "Atlanta Compromise" address.

1896    Plessy v. Ferguson legitimizes “separate but equal” doctrine.

1898    Spanish-American War.

1901    United States Steel Corporation formed.

Theodore Roosevelt becomes president.

1903    W.E.B. DuBois publishes The Souls of Black Folk.

Wright brothers fly the first airplane.

1908    First Model-T car produced by Ford.

1910    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) formed.

The National Urban League is founded.

1912    Woodrow Wilson defeats Taft and Roosevelt for presidency.

1914    The Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) is founded in Kingston, Jamaica, by Marcus and Amy Jacques Garvey.

1917    United States enters World War I.

East St. Louis Race Riot.

1919    Eighteenth Amendment (prohibition) ratified.

1920    Nineteenth Amendment (woman suffrage) passed.

The Harlem Renaissance begins.


International History (1820-1920)

1822    Ashanti War Begins.

Republic of Liberia established.

1824    Mexico declares independence from Spain.

1827    Beethoven dies.

1832    Greece gains independence.

1833    Slavery abolished in the British Empire.

1837    Victoria assumes English throne.

1840    Upper and Lower Canada united.

1842    First Opium War.

1844    Franco-Moroccan War.

1847    Liberia gains independence.

1848    Revolt in France.

Mexican War.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto in London.

1852    South Africa becomes a republic.

1853    Levi Straus and Company founded.

1855    David Livingstone reaches Victoria Falls.

1859    Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species.

1862    Bismarck becomes prime minister of Prussia.

1867    The Dominion of Canada established.

1868    Revolution in Spain.                   

1869    Suez Canal opens.

1870    Napoleon III deposed.

1871    Franco-Prussian War.

1914    Second Industrial Revolution.

1879    Northern China famine (3 million die).

1879    Zulu-British War.

1883    The War of the Pacific.

1896    First Ethiopian Italian War.

1888    Brazil abolishes slavery.

Jack the Ripper begins murders in London.

1890    Bismarck begins reign.

1893    New Zealand becomes first country in the world to allow women to vote.

1895    Sino-Japanese War.

             Frederick Douglas dies.

1897    Theodor Herzl launches Zionist Movement.

1898    Spanish-American War.

1902-   Philippine-American War.

1900    Sigmund Freud publishes his Interpretation of Dreams.

1902    Boer War.

1901    Queen Victoria dies.

Nobel Prizes first awarded.

1914    Construction of Panama Canal.

1910    Japan annexes Korea.

1911    Roald Amundsen reaches South Pole.

1912    Titanic sinks.

1915    Albert Einstein develops General Theory of Relativity.

Ottoman government and military systematically kill over one million Armenians.

Booker T. Washington dies.

1918    World War II.

1917    Russian Revolution.

1919    Paris Peace Conference and Treaty of Versailles.

The Second Pan-African Congress meets in Paris.

1920    Gandhi becomes leader of Indian independence movement.