The North American Office of Human Relations
From the Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996, Review and Herald Publishing Association)
HUMAN RELATIONS, OFFICE OF.
The North American Office of Human Relations, with its director and its
advisory committee, is concerned chiefly with the strengthening of the bonds of
unity among the diverse people groups within the churches and institutions of
the North American Division. It is a service that works with Division and union
administration in the work of reaching people within its assigned territory and
helping to transform the diverse racial and ethnic people groups of the church
in North America into a new people, a new community, and a new society based on
love and peace.
The office sees four major objectives as essential to its
work: (1) promoting fundamental belief 13 as the church’s official statement of
oneness and encouraging the membership to take aggressive steps to achieve
unity; (2) promoting Policy C-50 as the church’s official position on the
harmonious blending of its diverse membership in the total life of the church,
and affirming the seven principles of this policy as (a) those by which the
North American Division will conduct the activities of the church, (b) those to
which its employees will ascribe, and (c) those that the NAD will encourage
among its membership; (3) developing a multicultural relationship model and
working for its acceptance as a new paradigm for achieving oneness in the
fellowship; and (4) promoting the Conciliation and Dispute Resolution
Procedures model as a tool for settling differences that occur among the body.
Organizationally, the office works with the division and
union leaders in the promotion of human relations goals, objectives, and
activities, but its work is not limited to these areas. The office does share
information and provide counsel and guidance to persons on the local level as
well as in the churches when such is sought.
following statistics were compiled by the Office of Human Relations, Archives
and Statistics, and other departments in the General Conference and North
American Division in 1991. The membership statistics for multicultural groups
and other data relative to administrative and support employees of the division
are customarily compiled by the Office of Human Relations.
In 1991 the membership of the division was reported as
776,848, with statistics for the multicultural groups as follows: members of
African descent, 223,599, or 28.78 percent; members of Asian descent, 19,898,
or 2.56 percent; members of Caucasian descent, 462,552, or 59.54 percent;
members of Hispanic descent, 66,418, or 8.54 percent; Native Americans, 1,757,
or .22 percent; others, 2,635, or .34 percent.
In the North American Division area (total population about
285 million), the African-American population is more than 30 million. Churches
and companies that are of African-American descent and located within the nine
regional conferences of the NAD were 773. The membership for the regional
conferences (along with the African-American work in the Pacific and North
Pacific unions and Bermuda) in 1991 was 200,836. Other data include church
schools, 177; ordained ministers, 435; licensed ministers, 85; Bible
instructors, 40; teachers, 515.
Tithe income in 1991 was $75,777,066; world mission
offerings, $2,270,209. Baptisms were 10,850 for that year.
Institutions: Northeastern Academy; Oakwood College; Pine Forge Academy. There are
junior academies in the following cities: Birmingham, Huntsville, Mobile,
Montgomery, Selma, Alabama; Little Rock, Pine Bluff, Arkansas; Hartford,
Connecticut; Wilmington, Delaware; Fort Lauderdale, Hialeah, Jacksonville, Ocala,
St. Petersburg, West Palm Beach, Florida; Albany, Atlanta, Augusta, Columbus,
Lithonia, Macon, Savannah, Georgia; Chicago, Waukegan, Illinois; Gary,
Indianapolis, Indiana; Kansas City, Kansas; Louisville, Kentucky; Alexandria,
Baton Rouge, Hammond, Pineville, Shreveport, Louisiana; Baltimore, Hyattsville,
Maryland; Cassopolis, Detroit, Flint, Inkster, Michigan; Jackson, Mississippi;
Kansas City, St. Louis, Missouri; Omaha, Nebraska; Hillside, Trenton, New
Jersey; Bronx, Brooklyn, Buffalo, Laurelton, New Rochelle, Newburgh, Rochester,
New York; Charlotte, High Point, La Grange, Raleigh, Wilmington, Winston-Salem,
North Carolina; Cleveland, Cincinnati, Ohio; Anderson, Florence, Greenville,
Greenwood, Orangeburg, Sumter, South Carolina; Chattanooga, Memphis, Nashville,
Tennessee; Dallas, Houston, Round Rock, Texarkana, Texas; Newport News,
Richmond, Virginia; Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Regional Conferences: There are nine North American regional conferences, most of them
organized in 1945 or 1946, that have a leadership and constituency largely
African-American. These are called regional because of their distinctive
geographical arrangement. Each regional conference is organized with the
existing administrative structure of a union conference, and covers not merely
one portion of the union area, but all the African-American churches in the
entire region of the union, except in the Southern and Columbia unions, which
contain two regional conferences.
The nine regional conferences in North America are: the
Allegheny East Conference, embracing the Black congregations in the territory
of Delaware, the District of Columbia, and New Jersey, and eastern portions of
Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia (office: Pine Forge,
Pennsylvania); the Allegheny West Conference, embracing the Black congregations
in the territory of Ohio and western portions of Maryland, Pennsylvania,
Virginia, and West Virginia (office: Columbus, Ohio); the Central States
Conference, embracing the Black congregations in the territory of Colorado,
Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota,
and western New Mexico (office: Kansas City, Kansas); the Lake Region
Conference, embracing the Black congregations in the territory of Illinois,
Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin (office: Chicago, Illinois); the
Northeastern Conference, embracing the Black congregations in the territory of
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, and
Vermont (office: St. Albans, New York); the South Atlantic Conference,
embracing the Black congregations in North Carolina and South Carolina and
Northern Georgia (office: Atlanta, Georgia); the South Central Conference,
embracing the Black congregations in the territory of Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi,
and Tennessee, and western Florida (office: Nashville, Tennessee); the
Southeastern Conference, embracing the Black congregations in the territory of
eastern Florida and northern Georgia (office: Altamonte Springs, Florida); the
Southwest Region Conference, embracing the Black congregations in the territory
of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas, and eastern New Mexico (office:
The North Pacific and Pacific unions and the Seventh-day
Adventist Church in Canada have no regional conferences, but the Pacific Union
Conference has a Regional Affairs Department serving in an advisory capacity to
all the conferences in which there is a considerable African-American
membership, and the North Pacific Union Conference has a Health and Temperance
and Regional Affairs Department, as well as Multi-cultural Ministries and
Native Ministries Northwest departments, serving in a similar advisory
capacity. In Canada there are separate Black congregations as well as churches
with Black constituents in their memberships; in Bermuda most of the churches
have a majority of Blacks. Missionaries called from responsibilities in the
regional conferences have gone to India, South America, Africa, Asia, and the
The regional conferences were formed in the hope that the
new organizations might, with concentration on work within a specific ethnic
group, achieve greater results in a shorter space of time than would be
achieved under the previously existing organizations (in some cases under a
departmental or mission arrangement). The plan has been responsible for an
evangelistic penetration into the African-American community that had not been
possible under the organizations that formerly administered the work among the
nation’s African-American membership. The regional conferences also have
created more opportunities for leadership and participation by gifted and
trained African-American young people of the church, whose selection in the
same or similar capacities had not worked out in the years prior to the
formation of the regional conferences. Another practical result has been that
African-American members of the SDA Church have been more readily and more
naturally represented in elected offices and on boards and committees outside
the regional conferences than appears to have been true formerly.
History: Origin of
Work Among Black Americans. Before SDAs existed as a group, there were
African-American adherents of the Adventist (Millerite) movement.
Adventist leaders in the beginning were identified as
antislavery in sentiment. Some of them had actively aided Blacks in their
struggle against the severe system of slavery: both John P. Kellogg (father of
Dr. John Harvey Kellogg) and John Byington, who was later the first president
of the General Conference, had operated stations of the Underground Railroad on
their farms in Michigan and New York, respectively, and thus aided fleeing
slaves to reach freedom in Canada. Byington was well acquainted with Sojourner
The first Black Seventh-day Adventists were probably in the
North, where the church originated, but they are not noted separately in the
early accounts, since they would naturally be members of the same churches with
the White people, according to the social pattern in that region. Not until
SDAs began to move into the South did they encounter Blacks in any number and
in a social pattern of segregation. In trying to fulfill the primary objective
of the church—to preach the message “to every creature”-these newcomers made
converts from both Whites and Blacks and carried on work in some places
especially for the latter.
For the work for African-Americans in the South, begun in
Tennessee as early as 1871, see South Central Conference; in Texas and Georgia
as early as 1876, see Southwest Region Conference and South Atlantic
Conference. In North Carolina the work was begun in 1877 by papers sent through
In the West, C. M. Kinney, reputed to be the first
African-American ordained as an SDA minister, was won in 1878 by J. N.
Loughborough in Nevada, and became a charter member of the Reno church. Later
he preached in the South.
No Black Churches at First. In entering the South, the White
evangelists encountered a social system based on the separation of the races,
though at that early time (the 1870s) the separation was less complete than
later. C. O. Taylor, the first SDA minister to go into Georgia, preached in a
rural Baptist church in which he found Blacks attending along with the Whites,
though seated separately (Review and Herald 49:8 [i.e., 7], Jan. 4, 1877). D.
M. Canright, preaching in Kentucky, reported three Black Sabbathkeepers,
“members of the church with the others” (ibid. 47:174, June 1, 1876).
James Edson White, apostle to the African-American
communities along the lower Mississippi River, remarked that for Blacks to be
members of White churches had been the custom in pre-Civil War days, when slave
church members had belonged to their masters’ congregations (ibid. 78:265, Apr.
23, 1901), and it was after the war that Blacks formed their own churches and
employed their own ministers (Gospel Herald, February 1906, p. 6).
But by the time White reached the South, in the 1890s, he
noted that a separation in terms of race was on the increase and that because
of opposition—both by local Whites who opposed the education of Blacks, and by
Blacks who did not trust Whites and feared exploitation—the work of the
Southern Missionary Society became increasingly difficult (ibid.). In one place
in 1899 his work was practically closed, and the society had to staff its
Mississippi schools with African-American teachers because of local opposition
to Whites teaching Blacks (ibid., October 1899, p. 87; July 1900, p. 63).
In Texas in 1876 D. M. Canright reported that there was no
objection to his working for the African-American people so long as he worked
among them only (Review and Herald 47:166, May 25, 1876). In 1887 J. M. Rees in
Tennessee reported that there was no trouble regarding White and Black members
in the SDA Church, but that if ministers tried to preach to both races in their
meetings for the general public, they would have no White people to speak to
(General Conference Bulletin, Nov. 14, 1887, p. 2). When O. C. Godsmark and his
brother attempted to preach to both in Georgia, their evangelistic meetings
were deserted by both White and Black listeners. On the other hand, even many
years later, Black evangelists sometimes preached successfully to White and
Blackcongregations. J. G. Thomas reported such meetings in Jackson,
Mississippi; Gainesville, Florida; Chattanooga, Tennessee; and Columbus,
Georgia, where 90 Blacks and 37 Whites were baptized from his meetings. F. S.
Keitts, in Nashville; W. W. Fordham, in Jacksonville; and L. B. Baker, in El
Paso, reported similar experiences.
Increasing Opposition in the Nineties. The early attempts at
interracial churches in the South were abandoned in the face of opposition from
outside. J. E. White, in explaining why the Southern Missionary Society
conducted work for Whites and Blacks separately, declared that they had been
forced by necessity to adopt that policy. “We preferred to live and work in
such lines as we could than to force the issue and be cut off from the work”
(Gospel Herald, January 1901, supplement, p. 4). He added that Seventh-day Adventists,
who teach an unpopular doctrine, “cannot do work in many lines that would be
tolerated in others,” and remarked that racial feeling was deepening (ibid.).
It may be assumed that much of the problem encountered by White and others
stemmed from the fact that they were Northerners coming South to work for
Blacks, but it is also a matter of record in American history that in the
1890s, in a period of economic and political unrest, segregation increased
sharply, and many legal restrictions date from that time.
Increased opposition to the work in the South was noted by
Ellen White, who for many years had urged the evangelism and education of the
African-American people. In 1891 she read a manuscript, “Our Duty to the
Colored People” (released Mar. 20, 1891, and later printed as a pamphlet by J.
E. White), to the General Conference Committee at Battle Creek. In this she
said that Black members should be received into the White churches (p. 11).
Speaking of the White members, she said that “if a Colored brother sits by
their side they will not be offended or despise him,” for they are journeying
to the same heaven (p. 9). “If Jesus is abiding in our hearts we cannot despise
the Colored man who has the same Saviour abiding in his heart” (p. 9).
But by 1895 she urged caution in the South, saying that in
the future the missionary work among Black people “would have to be carried on
along lines different from those followed in some sections of the country in
former years” (9T 206).
The reason given repeatedly by Mrs. White for the change of
method was the strengthening opposition (ibid. 205) from outside the church.
She used phrases such as “danger of closing the door” to the work (ibid. 214);
“we shall find our way blocked completely” (ibid.); “Do nothing that will unnecessarily
arouse opposition” (ibid. 208).
Separate Churches a Concession to Necessity. On the one
hand, she laid down the principle of unity in Christ, who “laid the foundation
for a religion by which Jew and Gentile, black and white, free and bond, are
linked together in one common brotherhood, recognized as equal in the sight of
God” (7T 225).
“The religion of the Bible recognizes no caste or color. It
ignores rank, wealth, worldly honor. God estimates men as men with Him,
character decides their worth. And we are to recognize the Spirit of Christ in
whomsoever it is revealed. . . . He who is living in the atmosphere in which
Christ lives will be taught of God and will learn to put His estimate on men”
She looked forward to a time “when the Holy Spirit is poured
out,” when “human hearts will love as Christ loved. And the color line will be
regarded by many very differently from the way in which it is now regarded. To
love as Christ loves lifts the mind into a pure, heavenly, unselfish atmosphere.
He who is closely connected with Christ is lifted above the prejudice of color
or caste” (ibid. 209).
On the other hand, in the face of an increasing racial
feeling, she also warned that discretion is the better part of valor. She
cautioned against contention or inviting opposition unnecessarily, for
Adventist workers would have enough opposition from other sources (ibid. 211).
“The time has not come for us to work as if there were no
prejudice. . . . If you see that by doing certain things which you have a
perfect right to do, you hinder the advancement of God’s work, refrain from
doing these things” (ibid. 215).
She counseled that, on account of the changed situation, the
Black believers should have their own houses of worship, “not to exclude them from
worshiping with white people,” but “that the progress of the truth may be
advanced” (ibid. 206, 207). She advised providing separate churches as “the
course of wisdom,” “where demanded by custom or where greater efficiency is to
be gained” (ibid. 208), and “until the Lord shows us a better way” (ibid. 207).
A. W. Spalding reported that the method of dealing with the
evangelism of African-Americans had been debated in General Conference sessions
from time to time, “most speakers maintaining that as God is no respecter of
persons, Christians should not allow social questions to affect their church
polity” (Origin and History of Seventh-day Adventists, vol. 2, p. 188),
although no action was taken. In fact, the 1877 session voted not to take
action on the subject. Spalding records that when R. M. Kilgore (an Iowan who
had preached some years in Texas) was made head of the SDA work in the South
about 1890, “though brought up with the Northern conception of the problem,” he
“advocated the separation of white and colored churches. In the end this view
Spalding wrote, around 1924 (in an unpublished manuscript,
“Lights and Shades in the Black Belt” p. 142), that the church had taken the
position that it should “recognize and conform to existing conditions which do
not involve transgression of God’s law.” This attitude, he explained, though
apparently “shaped by policy instead of principle,” was “built upon the
principle of policy” that the church in its social relations should defer to
public opinion so “that the gospel may not be hindered.”
The policy of separation, at first adopted for the sake of
advancing the gospel, eventually came to be so taken for granted that probably
a majority of SDA members in areas where segregation was the custom believed it
to be a fundamental teaching of the church. The carrying out of this “principle
of policy” over a period of years was not always understood by African-American
members. As a consequence, some individuals and groups (see United Sabbath Day
Adventists) became disaffiliated with the church, although many of those who
went out returned to the original body.
Because, as Mrs. White pointed out, “in different places and
under varying circumstances, the subject will need to be handled differently”
(9T 213), the practice of separate African-American congregations has not been
uniformly followed. In many parts of the country there are no separate
churches, and even in areas in which the regional conferences operate, not all
African-American members are in the regional churches. In some places the Black
congregations were established by members who chose to withdraw from White
congregations in order to have their own groups and work better for
African-American evangelism; in other places, “where demanded by custom,” the
separation was the result of local necessity.
Development of Black Churches. The first African-American
churches originated in the 1880s, and the next few in the 1890s, in the period
of increased separation that resulted in the change of SDA method.
The first congregation of African-American Seventh-day
Adventist believers was organized as a company in November 1883 and as a church
in 1886 at Edgefield Junction, Tennessee. Its pastor was Harry Lowe, formerly a
Baptist preacher. The second church of African-American believers, with 10
charter members, was established in Louisville, Kentucky, Feb. 16, 1890, where
the work had been begun by A. Barry, who had accepted SDA teachings through
reading the Review and Herald. The third was organized at Bowling Green,
Kentucky, in June 1891. These first three, and also the fifth congregation,
which was organized at Nashville, Tennessee, in September 1894, were in what is
now the South Central Conference. The fourth, established by C. M. Kinney in
New Orleans (organized June 1892), was the first in the present Southwest
Southern Missionary Society. The work of the Southern
Missionary Society (incorporated in 1898) began in 1895 in Mississippi. It was
founded by James Edson White, who went south in his Mississippi steamer Morning
Star with a group of dedicated colporteurs, teachers, physicians, and Bible
instructors from churches in the North, to bring the SDA message to
African-American people along the Mississippi River. They were successful in
establishing small churches and schools in Mississippi and other states. For
the story, see Gospel Herald; Morning Star; Southern Missionary Society.
White’s printing firm was a forerunner of the Southern Publishing Association.
Other developments in the South included the establishing in
1895 of a school (see Oakwood College) and for a time (1906–1923) a sanitarium
at Huntsville, Alabama, and two attempts at the establishment of a sanitarium
in Nashville, Tennessee, between 1901 and 1909 (see Riverside Hospital).
Meantime work was beginning in earnest in cities of the
East, beginning in New York City in 1902 (see Allegheny East Conference;
Work in the West began in Los Angeles in 1906, when Jennie
Ireland, a member of the White congregation in the city, began missionary work
among the Black population and gave Bible studies to interested people, with
the result that in 1908 the first Black church west of Ohio was formed (see
Southern California Conference). Among those interested by Miss Ireland’s work
was the Temple family, whose daughter Ruth later attended medical school at
Loma Linda and became noted as the original promoter of the idea of Health Week
in the Los Angeles municipality’s Health Department. Another was the Troy family,
whose son Dr. Owen A. Troy became a pastor and evangelist in the West and
Midwest, then associate secretary of the General Conference Sabbath School
In 1894 there were about 50 Black SDAs in the United States. When the
membership reached 900 in 1909, it was felt that to make a more noticeable
impact on the growing African-American population some form of organization
should be effected. Hence, at the General Conference held that year the North
American Negro Department was organized. J. W. Christian, A. J. Haysmer, and C.
B. Stephenson, in that order, were the first departmental secretaries. In 1918
the secretary reported that there were a total of 3,500 African-American
members in the United States.
When the General Conference department was set up, union and
local departments or missions were organized also. In the Southern Conference,
the Southern Missionary Society formed the nucleus for the organization of a
Southern Union Mission. The Southeastern Union set up a union Negro Mission
Department, and for a time the Southwestern Union had a Southwestern Union
Mission for Blacks. Most local conferences in these unions had a
African-American department or a committee.
The first Black minister to head the General Conference
department was W. H. Green, formerly a lawyer in the District of Columbia who
had argued cases before the United States Supreme Court. He held the position
from 1918 until his sudden death in October of 1928. To fill the vacancy, the
Autumn Council of 1929 appointed George E. Peters as departmental secretary.
After serving briefly, Peters went to New York City to stabilize the work there
because of the grave situation after the United Sabbath Day Adventist crisis.
Peters was succeeded by Frank L. Peterson, a pastor in Boston, Massachusetts.
Peters was again elected to the position in 1941, and in 1951 was made a field
secretary of the General Conference, the first Black to serve thus.
The name of the department was changed at the Autumn Council
of 1942 from Negro Department to Colored Department, as the nation grew more
concerned over integrating its African-American minority into the main current
of American life. The term Colored somehow appeared less harsh, less divisive.
To help with the medical needs of the various schools served by the department,
Geneva Bryan, R.N., was made an assistant secretary of the department in 1942
and served until 1947.
Regional Conferences Organized. In 1944 the recommendation
was made to organize full-fledged conferences of the African-American churches,
a plan that had been requested some years earlier by Black leaders but had not
then been considered feasible. The General Conference Committee in its Spring
Meeting voted: “We recommend, 1. That in unions where the colored constituency
is considered by the union conference committee to be sufficiently large, and
where the financial income and territory warrant, colored conferences be
“2. That these colored conferences be administered by
colored officers and committees.
“3. That in the organization of these conferences the
present conference boundaries within each union need not be recognized.
“4. That colored conferences sustain the same relation to
their respective union conferences as do the white conferences” (Actions of the
Spring Meeting of the General Conference Committee, Apr. 10–16, 1944, pp. 15,
The first to act was the Lake Union Conference, which called
a meeting of the African-American constituency in September to organize the
Lake Region Conference (begun Jan. 1, 1945). Others followed, until in 1946
there were five such conferences. Two missions (Central States and
Southwestern), which soon became conferences also, each with a full staff of
officers and departmental secretaries, started in 1947.
In 1951 the North American Colored Department was enlarged
by the addition of an associate secretary, Calvin E. Moseley, Jr., who
succeeded G. E. Peters in 1953, both as secretary of the department and as a
field secretary of the General Conference.
In 1954 Frank L. Peterson became secretary of the department
and also associate secretary of the General Conference. Moseley was named
associate secretary. The same year the name was changed from Colored Department
to Regional Department as a further attempt to soften terms that seemed
primarily to designate members on the basis of color.
In 1962 Frank L. Peterson was made a general vice president
of the General Conference, and Harold D. Singleton, former president of the
Northeastern Conference, became the Regional Department secretary, with Frank
L. Bland, former president of the South Central Conference, as associate
In 1966, when Frank L. Bland succeeded the retiring Frank L.
Peterson as vice president, Walter W. Fordham, president of the Central States
Conference, was elected associate secretary of the Regional Department.
Recent Events. In many places in which the social pressures
have lessened, previously all-White congregations have opened their membership
in recent years. In the 1961 Autumn Council, the General Conference Committee
voted a statement on human relations, quoting three of the extracts previously
cited in this entry (7T 225; 9T 223, 209); and in the Spring Meeting of 1965
voted recommendations as follows: “We recommend, That the following principles
and practices be adopted and carried out in our churches and institutions:
“1. Membership and office in all churches and on all levels
must be available to anyone who qualifies, without regard to race.
“2. In our educational institutions there should be no
racial bias in the employment of teachers or other personnel, nor in the
admission of students.
“3. Hospitals and rest homes should make no racial
distinction in admitting patients or in making their facilities available to
physicians, interns, residents, nurses, and administrators who meet the
professional standards of the institution.
“It is further recommended that these recommendations be
given very serious consideration and that every effort be put forth to
implement them as rapidly as is consistently possible” (Actions of the Spring
Meeting of the General Conference Committee, Apr. 13, 14, 1965, in Review and
Herald 142:8, Apr. 29, 1965).
In 1970 the General Conference Committee, at its spring
session, in response to the desire among Black Seventh-day Adventists for a
fuller involvement in leadership, passed what is generally referred to as the
“16 points.” Among these is an action stating:
“8. On the union conference level positive steps should be
taken to open doors in the area of administrative and departmental leadership
for those who have demonstrated their ability and qualifications to serve all
segments of the church. In unions where there are Regional conferences or where
there is an organized Regional department, the administrative officer level
should include black leadership.”
As a result, the seven unions with large Black memberships
have elected officers and departmental secretaries from among their Black
Another of the “16 points” provided for a Regional
Presidents’ Council, which meets twice a year under North American leadership
and deals with problems distinctive to the regional work.
In 1975 the General Conference staff in Washington, D.C.,
included 17 persons elected to their positions from the Black constituency of
North America, including two vice presidents and an associate secretary. There
were also two persons in appointed positions.
Departmental Secretaries: J. W. Christian, 1909–1910; A. J.
Haysmer, 1910–1914; C. B Stephenson, 1914–1918; W. H. Green, 1918–1928; G. E.
Peters, 1929–1930; F. L. Peterson, 1930–1941; G. E. Peters, 1941–1953; C. E.
Moseley, Jr., 1953–1954; F. L. Peterson, 1954–1962; H. D. Singleton, 1962–1975.
Director of the Office of Regional Affairs: W. W. Fordham,
Director of the Office of Ethnic Relations: W. S. Banfield,
Director of the Office of Human Relations: W. S. Banfield,
1979–1989; Rosa T. Banks, 1989– .